1. Age 18-45 of both genders
2. Negative pregnancy test for females who are not s/p hysterectomy with oopherectomy
3. Calculated 10 year risk of CVD by the Framingham risk score of <5%
Specific for Healthy Volunteers
4. No history of episodic wheezing, chest tightness or shortness of breath consistent
with asthma, or physician diagnoses asthma.
5. FEV1 of at least 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio of at least .70
Specific for Allergic Asthmatic Volunteers
6. History of episodic wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath consistent with
asthma, or physician diagnosed asthma.
7. A POST-bronchodilator increase in FEV1 of at least 12%, OR a clinical history of
asthma after the age of 6.
8. FEV1 of at least 75% of predicted without use of short acting bronchodilating
medications for 12 hours, consistent with lung function of persons with no more than
mild episodic or mild persistent asthma.
9. Mild persistent asthmatics must be well controlled (in accordance with NHLBI
guidelines) and willing to discontinue Singulair, inhaled corticosteroids or cromolyn
for a period of 2 weeks prior to study visits (except for use of cromolyn exclusively
prior to exercise)
10. Allergic sensitization to at least one of the following allergen preparations: (House
Dust Mite f, House dust mite p, Cockroach, Tree mix, Grass Mix, Weed Mix, Mold Mix 1,
Mold Mix 2, Rat, Mouse, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, Cat or Dog) confirmed by positive
immediate skin test response; or a clinical history consistent with seasonal or
perennial allergy symptoms.
11. Subjects must be willing to avoid caffeine for 12 hours prior to all visits. Allergy
skin testing are performed as part of IRB98-0799, which a subject must complete in
order to be considered for this protocol.
Patients who meet any of these criteria are not eligible for enrollment as study
1. Clinical contraindications:
1. Any chronic medical condition considered by the PI as a contraindication to the
exposure study including significant cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic
renal disease, chronic thyroid disease, history of chronic
infections/immunodeficiency, history of tuberculosis.
2. Viral upper respiratory tract infection within 4 weeks of challenge.
3. Any acute infection requiring antibiotics within 4 weeks of exposure or fever of
unknown origin within 4 weeks of challenge.
4. Abnormal physical findings at the baseline visit, including but not limited to
abnormalities on auscultation, temperature of 37.8Â° C, Systolic BP > 150mm Hg or
< 85 mm Hg; or Diastolic BP > 90 mm Hg or < 50 mm Hg, or pulse oximetry
saturation reading less than 94%.
5. Unwillingness to use reliable contraception if sexually active (IUD, birth
control pills/patch, condoms).
6. Use of immunosuppressive or anticoagulant medications including routine use of
NSAIDS. Oral contraceptives are acceptable, as are Antidepressants and other
medications may be permitted if, in the opinion of the investigator, the
medication will not interfere with the study procedures or compromise safety and
if the dosage has been stable for 1 month
7. Orthopedic in juries or impediments that would preclude bicycle or treadmill
8. Mental illness or history of drug or alcohol abuse that, in the opinion of the
investigator, would interfere with the participant's ability to comply with study
9. Medications which may impact the results of the WSP exposure, interfere with any
other medications potentially used in the study (to include steroids, beta
antagonists, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents).
10. Inability to avoid NSAIDS, Multivitamins, Vitamin C or E or herbal medications in
the 4 days prior to the screening visit the exposure session.
11. Symptomatic allergic rhinitis or current active allergies.
12. Cigarette smoking > 1 pack per month
Specific for Healthy Volunteers
13. Physician diagnosis of asthma.
Specific for Asthmatic Volunteers
14. Physician directed emergency treatment for an asthma exacerbation within the
preceding 3 months
15. Moderate or Severe asthma
16. Exacerbation of asthma more than 2x/week which would be characteristic of a
person of moderate or severe persistent asthma as outlined in the current NHLBI
guidelines for diagnosis and management of asthma.
17. Daily requirement for albuterol due to asthma symptoms (cough, wheeze, chest
tightness) which would be characteristic of a person of moderate or severe
persistent asthma as outlined in the current NHLBI guidelines for diagnosis and
management of asthma. (Not to include prophylactic use of albuterol prior to
18. Nighttime symptoms of cough or wheeze greater than 1x/week at baseline (not
during a clearly recognized viral induced asthma exacerbation) which would be
characteristic of a person of moderate or severe persistent asthma as outlined in
the current NHLBI guidelines for diagnosis and management of asthma
19. History of intubation for asthma
20. Use of systemic steroid therapy within the preceding 3 months for an asthma
exacerbation. All use of systemic steroids in the last year will be reviewed by a
21. Use of inhaled steroids, cromolyn or leukotriene inhibitors (Montelukast or
Zafirlukast) except for use of cromolyn exclusively prior to exercise.
22. Use of daily theophylline within the past month