High-Risk Breast Duct Epithelium
“High-Risk Breast Duct Epithelium”
Background: - Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, occurring in over 230,000 women annually in the United States. - The vast majority of breast cancers originate in the single layer of epithelial cells that line the ductal/lobular system of the breast milk ducts. The premalignant changes which occur in the transformed epithelium are not well understood, however several cytologic or histologic changes have been identified which are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer, including ductal or lobular hyperplasia, hyperplasia with atypia, and lobular or ductal carcinoma in situ. - The identification of cytological or histological abnormalities in breast epithelial cells is an important component of risk assessment. Objective: Primary objectives are: - To determine the incidence and nature of cytologic changes in ductal epithelial cells from the high-risk breast, in specimens collected by breast ductal lavage, and to determine if these cytologic findings are different from those of female normal volunteers not at increased risk for breast cancer. - To characterize by breast duct endoscopy, high risk breast ductal epithelium and architecture, and correlate these findings with the cytologic findings referenced in above bullet. - To determine what is the global gene expression pattern of high risk breast epithelial cells from the high risk breast, and does this differ from that of breast epithelial cells from female normal volunteersnot at increased risk for breast cancer. The gene expression profile will be determined by cDNA microarray and validated by RT-PCR. Eligibility: Eligibility for high risk individuals will include: - Women with a unilateral invasive or noninvasive (DCIS) breast cancer of epithelial origin. - Women without breast cancer, but with a Gail Index greater than 1.67 percent, or a cumulative lifetime risk greater than or equal to double the age- and race-matched general population risk. - Women known to be BRCA1/2 or other hereditary genes mutation carriers. - Women with cytologic or histologic evidence of ductal hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, or lobular carcinoma in situ. - Women may be either premenopausal or postmenopausal. Postmenopausal is defined by the absence of menstrual periods for at least 12 months. - Postmenopausal women who have previously undergone a hysterectomy without oophorectomy must have a serum FSH level of > 40 IU/ml, and a serum estradiol level of less than40 pg/ml to document postmenopausal status. Eligibility for normal volunteers will include: - Women who are premenopausal or postmenopausal with a Gail model risk index less than 1.67 percent, and without a cumulative lifetime risk greater than or equal to double the age- and racematched general population risk. - Women who have previously undergone a hysterectomy without oophorectomy must have a serum FSH level of >40 IU/ml, and a serum estradiol level of less than 40 pg/ml to document postmenopausal status. - Both breasts must be free of any suspicious areas by physical examination and, for women over 30 years of age by mammogram. There must be no history of atypical hyperplasia, invasive or in situ carcinoma. Both groups must have acceptable white blood cell and platelet counts. Design: Breast ductal epithelial cells will be collected by breast ductal lavage from (a) the breast in women at increased risk for breast cancer, and (b) the breast of female normal volunteers who are not at increased risk for breast cancer. Ductal epithelial cell specimens will be analyzed cytologically for the presence of hyperplasia, atypia, or in situ changes. Breast duct endoscopy will be performed in breast cancer patients and in normal volunteers with cytologic atypia on ductal lavage to determine ductal architectural changes associated with increased risk for breast cancer, and to provide correlation with cytologic atypia. The gene expression profile of normal and high-risk ductal epithelial cells will be studied by cDNA-microarray to determine changes in gene expression associated with increased risk for breast cancer. Additional molecular profiling experiments which will be performed as lavage cells are available include DNA whole exome sequencing, Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), proteomic tissue lysate arrays, and identification of mammary stem cells. A total of 104 high-risk subjects and 110 normal volunteers will be studied, divided approximately evenly between premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Characterization of High Risk Breast Duct Epithelium by Cytology, Breast Duct Endoscopy, and cDNA Gene Expression Profile