- Healthy male and female adults 18-45 years old
- BMI: 23.0-32.0 kg/m2 ("overweight")
- Current diet includes low quantity of fiber, defined as less than approximately
15g/day, or equivalent to approximately 4 servings of fruit, vegetable, legume, or
whole grain combined per day, and determined using diet recall.
- Willingness to consume prebiotic fiber drink daily for 4 weeks, and a placebo drink
for 4 weeks, as well as a 4-week washout period with no intervention.
- Willingness to provide diet records, blood samples and stool samples (self-collected)
biweekly for the duration of the study (7 total collections).
- Willingness to adhere to "diet control period" biweekly (eating the same,
self-selected foods and abstaining from alcohol each day for 3 days prior to each
stool collection/blood draw).
- General bowel movement frequency of at least once every three days and maximum of two
times per day.
- A plan to or desire to lose weight
- Anemia and difficulty with blood draws
- Currently, within previous 6 weeks of the study, or during the study taken probiotic
or prebiotic formulations (food products considered to have these properties in their
natural or unadulterated forms are acceptable).
- Antibiotic use during the study or within 6 months prior to study commencement.
- Medication: statins, blood pressure medications, other prescription medications
- Pregnant, planning to be pregnant or breast feeding at any point during the study or
- Start or change in use of hormonal birth control in the last 6 months or plans to
change or start use of hormonal birth control during the study period
- Allergies to any prebiotic or placebo ingredients - Prebiotic ingredients: Resistant
Tapioca Starch, Fructooligosaccharide, Sugarcane Fiber, Agave Inulin, Gum Arabic,
Xanthan Gum, Apple Powder, Raspberry Powder, Blueberry Powder / Placebo Blend: Rice
Flour, Xanthan Gum, Grape Powder, Plum Powder
- Illness (flu/cold in the last two weeks)
- Documented chronic diseases including diabetes, thyroid disease, metabolic syndrome,
hypertension, cancer, or previous cardiovascular events
- Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, or any inflammatory bowel disease (including
Crohn's Disease, and/or Ulcerative colitis)
- Any immunosuppression symptoms at any point during the study or study enrollment
- Consumption of >1 alcoholic drink/day or frequent binge drinking (>3 alcoholic drinks
in one episode) > 1 day per month
- Plans to change or recent significant changes in lifestyle (e.g. diet or exercise
routine, major travel, etc)
- Recent weight fluctuations (greater than 10% in the last six months)
- Regular use of over-the-counter pain medications (>1/week)
- Taking prescription lipid medications (e.g. statins) or other supplements known to
alter lipoprotein metabolism such as isoflavones
- Recent medical procedure such as surgery within the last 6 months
- Any changes in the above during the course of the study