Fat Metabolism on Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
“Effects of Niacin on Intramyocellular Fatty Acid Trafficking in Upper Body Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”
Muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark of upper body obesity (UBO) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is unknown whether muscle free fatty acid (FFA) availability or intramyocellular fatty acid trafficking is responsible for the abnormal response to insulin. Likewise, the investigators do not understand to what extent the incorporation of FFA into ceramides or diacylglycerols (DG) affect insulin signaling and muscle glucose uptake. The investigators will measure muscle FFA storage into intramyocellular triglyceride, intramyocellular fatty acid trafficking, activation of the insulin signaling pathway and glucose disposal rates under both saline control (high overnight FFA) and after an overnight infusion of intravenous niacin (lower/normal FFA) to provide the first integrated examination of the interaction between FFA and muscle insulin action from the whole body to the cellular/molecular level. By identifying which steps in the insulin signaling pathway are most affected, the investigators will determine the site-specific effect of ceramides and/or DG on different degrees of insulin resistance. Hypothesis 1: Greater trafficking of plasma FFA into intramyocellular DG will impair proximal insulin signaling and reduce muscle glucose uptake. Hypothesis 2: Lowering FFA in UBO and T2DM by using an intravenous infusion of niacin will alter trafficking of plasma FFA into intramyocellular ceramides in a way that will improve insulin signaling and increase muscle glucose uptake. Hypothesis 3: Lowering FFA in UBO and T2DM by using an intravenous infusion of niacin will alter trafficking of plasma FFA into intramyocellular DG in a way that will improve insulin signaling and increase muscle glucose uptake.
Drug - Niacin
All participants will receive intravenous Niacin and each participant will serve as their own saline control on the second study
All participants will serve as their own controls with a saline infusion study day.
Effects of Niacin on Intramyocellular Fatty Acid Trafficking in Upper Body Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus